Odgovor Če nov 30, 2017 21:23

Protein Considerations for Optimising Skeletal

1. Protein guidelines should be customised to the population (young or older adults) and situation
(resting or post-exercise condition) of interest. For example, (a) the optimal dose of protein for
maximal stimulation of MPS during exercise recovery is greater for older compared to young
adults and (b) whey protein has been shown to stimulate a greater response of MPS compared
with soy protein during exercise recovery, but not at rest.
2. Chronic periods of leucine supplementation will not necessarily facilitate long-term
improvements in SMM, given that a full complement of EAA is critical for stimulating a maximal
and sustained response of MPS.
3. Manipulating the leucine content of a protein source that lacks quality (i.e., the protein source
constitutes a low leucine composition) and/or quantity (i.e., an insufficient protein dose for the
maximal stimulation of MPS) effectively rescues a submaximal resting postprandial stimulation
of MPS. This phenomenon has particular implications for older adults or other populations that
often experience difficulties in consuming a sufficiently large dose of protein in each meal serving
to stimulate a maximal response of MPS.
4. Timing protein intake in close temporal proximity to exercise is recommended, although not
critical, for stimulating a maximal response of MPS.
5. Coingesting CHO with a suboptimal dose of amino acids/protein may be an effective strategy
for “rescuing” a submaximal response of MPS associated with a suboptimal dose of amino
acids/protein. However, no additional benefit is gained from adding CHO to a dose of amino
acids/protein known to saturate the response of MPS.
6. Any beneficial impact of fat coingestion on MPS is likely mediated by the anabolic action of the
LC n-3 PUFA.

Protein Considerations for Optimising Skeletal
Muscle Mass in Healthy Young and Older Adults
Oliver C. Witard 1,*, Sophie L. Wardle 1, Lindsay S. Macnaughton 1, Adrian B. Hodgson 2 and

Abstract: Skeletal muscle is critical for human health. Protein feeding, alongside resistance exercise,
is a potent stimulus for muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and is a key factor that regulates skeletal
muscle mass (SMM). The main purpose of this narrative review was to evaluate the latest evidence
for optimising the amino acid or protein source, dose, timing, pattern and macronutrient coingestion
for increasing or preserving SMM in healthy young and healthy older adults. We used a systematic
search strategy of PubMed and Web of Science to retrieve all articles related to this review objective.
In summary, our findings support the notion that protein guidelines for increasing or preserving SMM
are more complex than simply recommending a total daily amount of protein. Instead, multifactorial
interactions between protein source, dose, timing, pattern and macronutrient coingestion, alongside
exercise, influence the stimulation of MPS, and thus should be considered in the context of protein
recommendations for regulating SMM. To conclude, on the basis of currently available scientific
literature, protein recommendations for optimising SMM should be tailored to the population or
context of interest, with consideration given to age and resting/post resistance exercise conditions
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