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Danes je Po dec 09, 2019 20:09

Keto/Low carb študije

Moderatorji: UrosS, Metka, Stasa, Grom

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Grom

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Pridružen: Če sep 23, 2004 18:35

Odgovor Pe jun 08, 2018 07:43

Re: Keto/Low carb študije

A ketogenic diet rescues hippocampal memory defects in a mouse model of Kabuki syndrome.
Benjamin JS1,2, Pilarowski GO1,2, Carosso GA1,2, Zhang L1, Huso DL3, Goff LA1,4, Vernon HJ1,5,6, Hansen KD1,7, Bjornsson HT8,5,9.
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Abstract

Kabuki syndrome is a Mendelian intellectual disability syndrome caused by mutations in either of two genes (KMT2D and KDM6A) involved in chromatin accessibility. We previously showed that an agent that promotes chromatin opening, the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) AR-42, ameliorates the deficiency of adult neurogenesis in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus and rescues hippocampal memory defects in a mouse model of Kabuki syndrome (Kmt2d+/βGeo). Unlike a drug, a dietary intervention could be quickly transitioned to the clinic. Therefore, we have explored whether treatment with a ketogenic diet could lead to a similar rescue through increased amounts of beta-hydroxybutyrate, an endogenous HDACi. Here, we report that a ketogenic diet in Kmt2d+/βGeo mice modulates H3ac and H3K4me3 in the granule cell layer, with concomitant rescue of both the neurogenesis defect and hippocampal memory abnormalities seen in Kmt2d+/βGeo mice; similar effects on neurogenesis were observed on exogenous administration of beta-hydroxybutyrate. These data suggest that dietary modulation of epigenetic modifications through elevation of beta-hydroxybutyrate may provide a feasible strategy to treat the intellectual disability seen in Kabuki syndrome and related disorders.
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Pridružen: Če sep 23, 2004 18:35

Odgovor So jun 09, 2018 15:59

Re: Keto/Low carb študije

Metabolism and epilepsy: Ketogenic diets as a homeostatic link


Highlights

Seizures appear spontaneous because precipitating factors are typically unknown, not monitored and/or not quantifiable.
Identifying dynamic physiological factors that increase seizure propensity, and leveraging those that decrease probability, could reduce their episodic recurrence.
Metabolism influences seizure susceptibility, and metabolic therapy with a ketogenic diet reduces seizures susceptibility and promotes stability and homeostasis of the neuronal network.
A more stable and robust metabolic phenotype is a foundation for increasing the probability of normal brain function and decreasing unpredictable and sporadic seizure activity.

Abstract

Metabolic dysfunction can underlie seizure disorders, and metabolism-based treatments can afford seizure control and promote homeostasis. This relationship between metabolism and the risk of sporadic seizures was observed historically with the clinical success of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat, ketosis-inducing ketogenic diet – a treatment that remains relevant today, and one that has been shown to be effective against medically refractory epilepsy. Mechanisms underlying the success of the ketogenic diet are a topic of intense research efforts – not only because of proven success in arresting treatment-resistant seizures, but also because recent evidence suggests that altering metabolism with a ketogenic diet enables a homeostatic state in the brain that is less excitable, and hence raises the threshold for seizure genesis. Metabolic therapy with a ketogenic diet has been shown to normalize a range of abnormal physiological and behavioral parameters and may also make the central nervous system more resilient to other insults or physiological stresses. Because the therapeutic ability of such a diet may be more limited than a drug because of a dose “ceiling”, investigations are underway to develop and test analogous or supplemental approaches. In addition, significant efforts have been made to demonstrate broader applications of metabolic therapy in promoting health and preventing disease, including conditions where epileptic seizures manifest in a comorbid fashion.
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Šefe

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Pridružen: Če sep 23, 2004 18:35

Odgovor To jun 12, 2018 12:48

Re: Keto/Low carb študije

Efficacy Of Ketogenic Diet On Body Composition During Resistance Training In Trained Men.: 769 Board #30 May 30 2

Vargas Salvador; Ramón Romance; Jorge L. Petro; Diego A. Bonilla; Ismeal Galancho; Sergio Espinar; Rick B. Kreider; Javier Benitez-Porres

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Excerpt
Nowadays, ketogenic diet (KD) is widely used in body aesthetics for changing body composition, even though there is a lack of research regarding to the possible benefits on muscle hypertrophy.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an 8-week KD during energy surplus and a resistance training protocol on muscle hypertrophy in trained men.
METHODS: 24 healthy men (age 30 ± 4.7 years; weight 76.7 ± 8.2 kg; height 174.3 ± 19.7 cm; > 2 years of consecutive training experience) performed an 8-week resistance training (RT) program with similar hypertrophy training variables. Participants were randomly assigned to either a KD (10:20:70, n=9), or a non-ketogenic diet (55:20:25, n=10, NKD), or a control group (n=5, CG) in hypercaloric condition (39 kcal · kg−1 · d−1). Body composition changes were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before and after each nutritional intervention and training program in all participants. Compliance with the ketosis state was monitored by measuring urinary ketones weekly. Statistical evaluations to determine significant differences between groups and substantive significance were performed with paired t-test, where critical α was p < 0.05, and Cohen’s d effect size (ES), respectively.
RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in fat mass (Δ= -10.4%, p =0.030, ES = 0.46) and abdominal visceral adiposity in KD (Δ= -16.3%, p =0.008; ES = 0.84); while no significant changes were observed in the NKD and CG groups. Muscle mass significantly increased after 8 weeks of RT program in the NKD group only (Δ=+2.1%, p <0.01, ES = 0.31).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that KD can be helpful for decreasing abdominal visceral adiposity and fat mass, but not to increase muscle mass during positive energy balance in men undergoing RT. This study shows the relevance of macronutrient manipulation in RT programs, in order to improve body composition parameters focusing on training goals (fat reduction and/or increase of muscle mass) in trained men.
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Šefe

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Pridružen: Če sep 23, 2004 18:35

Odgovor To jun 12, 2018 12:48

Re: Keto/Low carb študije

Lifelong Ketogenic Diet Feeding Increases Longevity, But Does Not Alter Oxidative Stress Markers in Rats: 371 Board #212 May 30 11

Hailey A. Parry; Wesley C. Kephart; Petey Mumford; Matthew Romero; Cody Hann; C. Brooks Mobley; Yufeng Zhang; Michael D. Roberts; Andreas N. Kavazis
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Excerpt
PURPOSE: Ketogenic Diets (KD) consist of high fat, moderate protein and low carbohydrate. KD have been used as a weight loss tool and as a therapeutic tool for neurological disorders. It has been suggested that KD increase longevity, but to date only two studies in mice have been performed with equivocal results. Therefore, we determined the effects of KD on longevity and multi-organ oxidative stress markers in rats.
METHODS: Ten month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 per group) were provided with one of two isocaloric diets: standard chow (SC; 24% (% kcal) protein, 58% CHO, 18% fat; 20 g/day) or KD (23% protein, 10% carbohydrate, 67% fat; 16 g/day). Rats were euthanized if: a) vitality scores (range = 4 (good health) to 20 (poor health)) exceeded a score of 16 per the recommendations of Phillips et al. (J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci, 2010, 49(6): 792- 799), b) rapid weight loss accompanied by changes in food and water consumption, or c) the rat suffered from a condition to which a university veterinarian deemed euthanasia necessary for humane purposes. Upon euthanasia, the gastrocnemius muscle, liver, and brain were removed and stored at -80°C and analyzed for markers of oxidative damage (4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and protein carbonyls (Oxyblot)) and protein levels of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase 1/2 (SOD1/2), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX).
RESULTS: The survivability log-rank test indicates that KD increased the lifespan of rats (p=0.009) when compared to SC. No significant difference in body mass was observed at the beginning (SC=425.7±13.2, KD=435.9±5.8) or end (SC=428.0±25.4, KD=417.1±22.6) of the experiment, and liver and gastrocnemius mass at sacrifice was not significantly different between groups (p>0.05). Liver CAT protein levels were about 30% higher in KD, albeit not significant (p=0.062). Additionally, liver SOD1 protein levels were about 20% higher in KD, but again, this was not significant (p=0.094). No other significant differences in protein levels of antioxidants, 4HNE, or Oxyblot were observed in either the gastrocnemius, liver, or brain.
CONCLUSIONS: Lifelong KD improves longevity in rats without altering body mass and our data show that the longevity benefits of KD come without altering oxidative damage or antioxidant protein levels in the gastrocnemius, liver, or brain.
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Šefe

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Pridružen: Če sep 23, 2004 18:35

Odgovor To jun 12, 2018 12:49

Re: Keto/Low carb študije

The Effects Of A Six-week Ketogenic Diet On The Performance Of Short-duration, High-intensity Exercise: A Pilot Study

Excerpt
There is much controversy surrounding the use of very high fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diets and athletic performance. Specifically, it has been hypothesized that anaerobic activity, which is primarily fueled by ATP that is formed through the metabolism of carbohydrate sources, may be hindered when utilizing a ketogenic dietary approach.
PURPOSE: The current study was designed to investigate how switching from a habitual diet to a ketogenic diet for 6 weeks would affect the performance of short-duration, high-intensity exercise.
METHODS: Eight men and seven women (N = 15; 30.2 yr ± 4.11) were randomly assigned to either the ketogenic diet (KETO; n = 8) or the control group (CON; n = 7). All subjects were trained in CrossFit for at least 3 months prior to the study. Several measures of anaerobic performance were assessed at baseline and following 6 weeks utilizing the following series of standardized exercise tests: timed 500m row, Wingate Anaerobic Test, and 3-repetition maximum (3RM) deadlift. Aerobic capacity was also assessed by measuring VO2peak. Subjects continued their regular CrossFit training during the 6 week period and dietary intake was recorded.
RESULTS: A significant increase (p < .05) in mean power output (MPO; W/kg) from baseline (M = 8.24 ± 1.15) to 6 weeks (M = 8.70 ± .82) was found the CON group. No significant interactions (p > .05) were found between diet and test time for any of the other measured exercise variables. No significant differences (p > .05) were found in the KETO group from baseline to 6 weeks in any of the measured exercise variables. No significant differences in body weight (lbs) were found from baseline to 6 weeks in either group (KETO; 183.8 ± 31.71 vs. 181.03 ± 30.28, CON; 166.38 ± 35.77 vs. 166.88 ±37.28). Attrition rate was 33% in the KETO group and 30% in the CON group.
CONCLUSION: A 6-week ketogenic diet did not affect the performance of short-duration high-intensity exercise. Our data does not support the hypothesis that ketogenic diets induce detriments in the performance of activity that is anaerobic in nature. The current study took place over a 6 week period, allowing for keto-adaptation to occur; results may be different if a shorter time period were utilize
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Šefe

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Pridružen: Če sep 23, 2004 18:35

Odgovor To jun 12, 2018 12:50

Re: Keto/Low carb študije

Effects Of A Ketogenic Diet On Triathlon’s Athletes Performance: A Pilot Trial.

Antonio Paoli; Davide Grigoletto; Fabio Zambolin; Giuseppe Marcolin

Excerpt
PURPOSE: Sport nutrition guidelines support the idea that carbohydrates (CHO) are fundamental for performance, mainly for endurance. However recently published studies on long distance athletes suggested some advantages of a low CHO, high fat approach, i.e. ketogenic diets. We aimed to investigate the effects of ketogenic diet (KD) on triathlon athletes. :
METHODS: Sixteen expert athletes (age 30.67±10.46 yrs) were enrolled in the pilot trial. Eight athletes followed a ketogenic diet (KD) for 5 weeks whilst other eight followed a standard western diet (WD). Subjects were tested for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak power output (PPO), respiratory ratio (RR), heart rate, VO2, and blood lactate during one hour cycloergometer test at 45% of PPO, and body composition through electrical impedance (BIA). A two way ANOVA treatment x time test was performed.
RESULTS: After 5 weeks subjects in the KD group showed a significant increase of VO max (mlO xKg-1xmin-1) 35.68±3.86 to 36.6±5.1; a significant increase of PPO 2 2 (140±5.29 to 145±9), a significant decrease of fat mass (from 10.28±3.04 to 7.86±2.53 Kg), lactate (from 2.02±0.7 to 1.2±0.6) and of RR (from 0.86±0.03 to 0.79±0.01). No changes of lean body mass and time to exhaustion were detected.
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Šefe

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Pridružen: Če sep 23, 2004 18:35

Odgovor Ne jun 17, 2018 09:50

Re: Keto/Low carb študije

Ketogenic diet attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation after spinal cord injury by activating Nrf2 and suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathways


•Ketogenic diet (KD) promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI).
•KD attenuated oxidative stress and inflammation in SCI by activating Nrf2.
•KD reduced NF-κB pathway activity and expression of inflammatory cytokines.
•These findings provide a putative mechanism for KD-associated recovery in SCI.

Abstract

Oxidative stress and inflammation are two key secondary pathological mechanisms following spinal cord injury (SCI). Ketogenic diet (KD) and its metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate have been found to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties both in rats with SCI and in healthy rats; however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. We investigated the effects of KD on the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation, activation of nuclear factor-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), and inhibition of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in rats with SCI. We assessed functional recovery and evaluated the status of oxidative stress and inflammation using tests of superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activity. We further assessed the presence of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and interferon γ (IFN-γ) by ELISA. Western blotting was used to detect Nrf2 and NF-κB pathway-associated proteins in spinal cord tissue. Finally, we measured the levels of the NF-κB downstream genes TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ by western blotting and real-time quantitative PCR. Following SCI, KD improved functional recovery, attenuated oxidative stress and inflammation, and induced Nrf2 activation. In addition, KD suppressed the NF-κB pathway and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ. Together, these findings provide new insight into the underlying regulatory mechanisms of KD.
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Pridružen: Če sep 23, 2004 18:35

Odgovor Ne jun 24, 2018 20:16

Re: Keto/Low carb študije

Ketogenic diet for schizophrenia: nutritional approach to antipsychotic treatment

Abstract

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that mostly appears in the second or third decade of life with no consistent appearance. The first-line pharmacological treatment are antipsychotic drugs, which mainly act by suppressing the activity of dopamine. Unfortunately many of schizophrenic patients suffer from persistent positive or negative symptoms that cannot be fully treated with available medication. With exploration on the possible causes of the disease there is evidence on dopaminergic transmission defects, there is a need to find more holistic way in treating the disease and a diet regimen could be one of them. Ketogenic diet, which is a popular diet regimen that consists in low-carbohydrate (about 30-50 g/day), medium-protein (up to 1g/kg daily) and high-fat intake (around 80% of daily calories) mainly known for its helpful role in weight-loss. The key mechanism is to generate ketosis. A state in which ketones bodies in the blood provides energy part of the body's energy comes from ketone bodies in the blood. Possible hypothesis can be that ketogenic diet changes the ratio of GABA:glutamate in favor of GABA, by suppressing the catabolism and increasing the synthesis of GABA as well as glutamate metabolism, which could help to compensate the disrupted GABA levels in schizophrenic brain, leading to possible better outcome of the disease regarding symptomatology and preventing the weight-gain regarding some medications used and the correlating diseases responsible for weight gain.
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Pridružen: Če sep 23, 2004 18:35

Odgovor To jul 03, 2018 14:35

Re: Keto/Low carb študije

Beta-hydroxybutyrate promotes the expression of BDNF in hippocampal neurons under adequate glucose supply

Highlights

•β-hydroxybutyrate within its physiological range promotes BDNF expression in neurons under adequate glucose supply.
•β-hydroxybutyrate induces BDNF expression by activating cAMP/PKA/p-CREB signaling.
•β-hydroxybutyrate regulats the epigenetic markers of H3K27ac and H3K27me3 binding at Bdnf promoters.

β-hydroxybutyrate enhances H3K27ac level independent on HDAC.

Abstract

Neurobiological evidence suggests that the ketone metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) exerts many neuroprotective functions for the brain. The previous study revealed that BHBA could promote the expression of brain derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF) at glucose inadequate condition. Here we demonstrated that BHBA administration induced the expression of BDNF in the hippocampus of mice fed with normal diet. In vitro experiment results also showed that 0.02-2 mM BHBA significantly increased BDNF expression in both the primary hippocampal neurons and the hippocampus neuron cell line HT22 under adequate glucose supply. Bdnf transcription induced by BHBA stimulus was mediated through the cAMP/PKA triggered phosphorylation of CREB (S133) and the subsequent up-regulation of histone H3 Lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) binding at Bdnf promoter I, II, IV, and VI. Moreover, BHBA stimulus induced a decrease of tri-methylation of H3K27 (H3K27me3) binding at the Bdnf promoters II and VI and the elevation of H3K27me3-specific demethylase JMJD3, which also contributed to the activation of Bdnf transcription. These results demonstrated that BHBA within the physiological range could promote BDNF expression in neurons via a novel signaling function. Moreover, BHBA might possess more broad epigenetic regulatory activities, which affected both the acetylation and demethylation of H3K27. Our findings reinforce the beneficial effect of BHBA on the central nervous system (CNS) and suggest that BHBA administration with no need for energy restriction might also be a promising intervention to improve the neuronal activity and ameliorate the degeneration of CNS.
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Pridružen: Če sep 23, 2004 18:35

Odgovor Če jul 05, 2018 17:43

Re: Keto/Low carb študije

Feasibility and efficacy data from a ketogenic diet intervention in Alzheimer's disease.
Taylor MK, et al. Alzheimers Dement (N Y). 2018.

Abstract

Introduction: We assessed the feasibility and cognitive effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) in participants with Alzheimer's disease.

Methods: The Ketogenic Diet Retention and Feasibility Trial featured a 3-month, medium-chain triglyceride-supplemented KD followed by a 1-month washout in clinical dementia rating (CDR) 0.5, 1, and 2 participants. We obtained urine acetoacetate, serum β-hydroxybutyrate, food record, and safety data. We administered the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale and Mini-Mental State Examination before the KD, and following the intervention and washout.

Results: We enrolled seven CDR 0.5, four CDR 1, and four CDR 2 participants. One CDR 0.5 and all CDR 2 participants withdrew citing caregiver burden. The 10 completers achieved ketosis. Most adverse events were medium-chain triglyceride-related. Among the completers, the mean of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale score improved by 4.1 points during the diet (P = .02) and reverted to baseline after the washout.

Discussion: This pilot trial justifies KD studies in mild Alzheimer's disease.
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Pridružen: Če sep 23, 2004 18:35

Odgovor Pe jul 20, 2018 15:19

Re: Keto/Low carb študije

Nutritional ketosis delays the onset of isoflurane induced anesthesia

Abstract
Background

Ketogenic diet (KD) and exogenous ketone supplements can evoke sustained ketosis, which may modulate sleep and sleep-like effects. However, no studies have been published examining the effect of ketosis on the onset of general isoflurane induced anesthesia. Therefore, we investigated the effect of the KD and different exogenous ketogenic supplements on the onset of akinesia induced by inhalation of isoflurane.
Methods

We used a high fat, medium protein and low carbohydrate diet (KD) chronically (10 weeks) in the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) deficiency (G1D) syndrome mice model and sub-chronically (7 days) in Sprague-Dawley (SPD) rats. To investigate the effect of exogenous ketone supplements on anesthetic induction we also provided either 1) a standard rodent chow diet (SD) mixed with 20% ketone salt supplement (KS), or 2) SD mixed with 20% ketone ester supplement (KE; 1,3 butanediol-acetoacetate diester) to G1D mice for 10 weeks. Additionally, SPD rats and Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats were fed the SD, which was supplemented by oral gavage of KS or KE for 7 days (SPD rats: 5 g/kg body weight/day; WAG/Rij rats: 2.5 g/kg body weight/day). After these treatments (10 weeks for the mice, and 7 days for the rats) isoflurane (3%) was administered in an anesthesia chamber, and the time until anesthetic induction (time to immobility) was measured. Blood ketone levels were measured after anesthetic induction and correlation was calculated for blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) and anesthesia latency.
Results

Both KD and exogenous ketone supplementation increased blood ketone levels and delayed the onset of isoflurane-induced immobility in all investigated rodent models, showing positive correlation between the two measurements. These results demonstrate that elevated blood ketone levels by either KD or exogenous ketones delayed the onset of isoflurane-induced anesthesia in these animal models.
Conclusions

These findings suggest that ketone levels might affect surgical anesthetic needs, or could potentially decrease or delay effects of other narcotic gases.
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Pridružen: Če sep 23, 2004 18:35

Odgovor Po avg 13, 2018 06:22

Re: Keto/Low carb študije

Ketones and pain: unexplored role of hydroxyl carboxylic acid receptor type 2 in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain

Abstract

The mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain are poorly understood. Here we show the unexplored role of the hydroxyl carboxylic acid receptor type 2 (HCAR2) in 2 models of neuropathic pain. We used an oral treatment with dimethyl fumarate and the HCAR2 endogenous ligand β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in wild-type (WT) and HCAR2-null mice. We found an up-regulation of the HCAR2 in the sciatic nerve and the dorsal root ganglia in neuropathic mice. Accordingly, acute and chronic treatment with dimethylfumarate (DMF) and BHB reduced the tactile allodynia. This effect was completely lost in the HCAR2-null mice after a 2-d starvation protocol, in which the BHB reached the concentration able to activate the HCAR2-reduced tactile allodynia in female WT mice, but not in the HCAR2-null mice. Finally, we showed that chronic treatment with DMF reduced the firing of the ON cells (cells responding with an excitation after noxious stimulation) of the rostral ventromedial medulla. Our results pave the way for investigating the mechanisms by which HCAR2 regulates neuropathic pain plasticity.—Boccella, S., Guida, F., De Logu, F., De Gregorio, D., Mazzitelli, M., Belardo, C., Iannotta, M., Serra, N., Nassini, R., de Novellis, V., Geppetti, P., Maione, S., Luongo, L. Ketones and pain: unexplored role of hydroxyl carboxylic acid receptor type 2 in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain.
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Pridružen: Če sep 23, 2004 18:35

Odgovor Po sep 24, 2018 15:57

Re: Keto/Low carb študije

Effects of 3-hydroxybutyrate and free fatty acids on muscle protein kinetics and signaling during LPS-induced inflammation in humans: anticatabolic impact of ketone bodies


Acute inflammation, and subsequent release of bacterial products (e.g. LPS), inflammatory cytokines, and stress hormones, is catabolic, and the loss of lean body mass predicts morbidity and mortality. Lipid intermediates may reduce protein loss, but the roles of free fatty acids (FFAs) and ketone bodies during acute inflammation are unclear.
Objective

We aimed to test whether infusions of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3OHB), FFAs, and saline reduce protein catabolism during exposure to LPS and Acipimox (to restrict and control endogenous lipolysis).
Design

A total of 10 healthy male subjects were randomly tested 3 times, with: 1) LPS, Acipimox (Olbetam) and saline, 2) LPS, Acipimox, and nonesterified fatty acids (Intralipid), and 3) LPS, Acipimox, and 3OHB, during a 5-h basal period and a 2-h hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp. Labeled phenylalanine, tyrosine, and urea tracers were used to estimate protein kinetics, and muscle biopsies were taken for Western blot analysis of protein metabolic signaling.
Results

3OHB infusion increased 3OHB concentrations (P < 0.0005) to 3.5 mM and decreased whole-body phenylalanine-to-tyrosine degradation. Basal and insulin-stimulated net forearm phenylalanine release decreased by >70% (P < 0.005), with both appearance and phenylalanine disappearance being profoundly decreased. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α at Ser51 was increased in skeletal muscle, and S6 kinase phosphorylation at Ser235/236 tended (P = 0.074) to be decreased with 3OHB infusion (suggesting inhibition of protein synthesis), whereas no detectable effects were seen on markers of protein breakdown. Lipid infusion did not affect phenylalanine kinetics, and insulin sensitivity was unaffected by interventions.
Conclusion

During acute inflammation, 3OHB has potent anticatabolic actions in muscle and at the whole-body level; in muscle, reduction of protein breakdown overrides inhibition of synthesis
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Pridružen: Če sep 23, 2004 18:35

Odgovor To okt 16, 2018 18:08

Re: Keto/Low carb študije

The Ketogenic Diet as a Potential Treatment and Prevention Strategy for Alzheimer's Disease
Author links open overlay panelGina M.BroomaIan C.ShawbJulia J.Rucklidgea
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2018.10.003

• Impaired brain glucose metabolism and amyloid beta plaques are associated with Alzheimer's disease pathology.
•Ketones provide an alternative metabolic precursor to glucose in the brain.
•Ketogenic diets likely reduce amyloid plaques and may reverse their neurotoxicity.
•Modern diets high in carbohydrates may contribute to increasing Alzheimer's incidence.
•The ketogenic diet (including carbohydrate restriction) might be useful in the management of Alzheimer's disease.
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Pridružen: Če sep 23, 2004 18:35

Odgovor So okt 20, 2018 17:03

Re: Keto/Low carb študije

A Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet Reduces Body Weight Without Compromising Performance in Powerlifting and Olympic Weightlifting Athletes

Greene, David A.; Varley, Benjamin J.; Hartwig, Timothy B.; Chapman, Phillip; Rigney, Michael


Greene, DA, Varley, BJ, Hartwig, TB, Chapman, P, and Rigney, M. A low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet reduces body weight without compromising performance in powerlifting and Olympic weightlifting athletes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2018—Weight class athletes use weight-making strategies to compete in specific weight categories with an optimum power-to-weight ratio. There is evidence that low carbohydrate diets might offer specific advantages for weight reduction without the negative impact on strength and power previously hypothesized to accompany carbohydrate restriction. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD) could be used as a weight reduction strategy for athletes competing in the weight class sports of powerlifting and Olympic weightlifting. Fourteen intermediate to elite competitive lifting athletes (age 34 ± 10.5, n = 5 female) consumed an ad libitum usual diet (UD) (>250 g daily intake of carbohydrates) and an ad libitum LCKD (≤50 g or ≤10% daily intake of carbohydrates) in random order, each for 3 months in a crossover design. Lifting performance, body composition, resting metabolic rate, blood glucose, and blood electrolytes were measured at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The LCKD phase resulted in significantly lower body mass (−3.26 kg, p = 0.038) and lean mass (−2.26 kg, p = 0.016) compared with the UD phase. Lean mass losses were not reflected in lifting performances that were not different between dietary phases. No other differences in primary or secondary outcome measures were found between dietary phases. Weight class athletes consuming an ad libitum LCKD decreased body weight and achieved lifting performances that were comparable with their UD. Coaches and athletes should consider using an LCKD to achieve targeted weight reduction goals for weight class sports.
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